Vanessa Pupavac argues that translation is the truest form of altruism – it is a process through which we express our human sociability across language borders. Finding creativity in the difficulties of communication across language and time barriers, she argues that the layers of meaning provided by different types of translation give freedom and life to a work. She challenges us to take up the liberty of translating or retranslating against our habitual language limits and enhance our liberty of expression.

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Vanessa Pupavac is a senior lecturer at the University of Nottingham. Her publications include Language Rights: from free speech to linguistic governance (2012) and Changing European Visions of Disaster and Development (2020). She has recently translated Miroslav Krleža’s 1920 drama Galicia, which is set in the First World War.